Michael Carroll

Rochester, NY

Portrayal dates (late14th - early 15th C.):
d.~1416 (of complications from wounds received at Agincourt)

Michael was born in Northern Ireland, but unfortunately his mother died shortly after his birth so he was sent to live with relatives in Scotland. They very quickly grew tired of feeding him and managed to foster him off to a minor French nobleman (as part of the Auld Alliance) as a page. He later became a squire and was eventually knighted on November 29th, 1382 (at the early age of 17) immediately prior to the Battle of Roosbeke as a reward for bold actions committed during an earlier rout of the Flemish (in particular, for participation in fording the Leie River with 400 French knights.) During the main battle at Roosbeke, he fought under the command of Enguerrand de Coucy on the French left flank. During which time he was so impressed with the leadership and wisdom of deCoucy that he chose to seek his fortune and continue fighting alongside the Armagnacs against the Burgundians throughout the troublesome period to follow. After the Truce of Leulinghen in 1389 he began traveling throughout the continent participating in any tournament he could find, jousting whenever, and wherever possible.

Outline of significant events during Michael's lifespan

1358 80 The Du Guesclin Period
Du Guesclin, the French constable, a petty Breton noble, uses novel irregular and guerrilla tactics to harry the English and gradually recaptures many fiefs, preferring sieges (using primitive cannon) to pitched battles. French tactics prevent the English from making the war pay for itself through pillage and milking of captured French fiefs.

1380 1413:
A lengthy semi-truce prevails, during which brigands (mostly demobilized soldiers) rampage throughout France. England drifts after the death of Edward III and unrest at home over the cost of holding on to French possessions, while there is considerable disorder in France.

1413-28: The Lancastrian Period Henry V, another English king of Edward III's abilities (a great grandson, in fact), comes to the throne, smashes French armies and reconquers more of France than Edward III ever did. At Henry V's decisive victory at Agincourt, the English army had about 5,000 "foot" mostly bowmen but including some others, and about 900 "horse," who were serving as heavy infantry, figures which are pretty well established, as the muster rolls of the English army were preserved more or less intact. The French probably had only about 20,000 men at the battle, mostly dismounted men-at-arms, plus a thousand crossbowmen, two thousand shortbowmen, and a couple of bombards. The English stood on the defensive and allowed the French to charge themselves to death: several thousand French died as against only about 100 English (including one killed by a bombard). Figures for the French reaching up to 60,000 are cited by some authors, but these invariably include all French forces in the theater. There were several French armies roaming around and the English had been having a tough time trying to elude them all. Older works sometimes give the French as many as 100,000 men.

Henry V was called the "Lancastrian king" because he was descended from a younger son of Edward III, who was the duke of Lancaster.

Timeline of significant news:
1360 Treaty of Calais between Edward III and Philip of Burgundy.
1361 Black Death reappears in England.
1362 English poem "Piers Plowman" written by William Langland.
1363 Peace of Bretigny, ending the first phase of the war, which has so far been a draw.
Timur the Lame leads Mongol armies to new conquests in Asia, sweeping over northern India.
1364 Jean II, Charles V becomes king of France (dies in 1380).
1365 Charles V crowned king of Burgundy at Arles.
Vienna University founded.
1366 English parliament refuses to pay feudal dues to the pope.
1367 Turks expand their hold on European side of the Dardennales (Constantinople still held by Byzantines).
1368 Mongols overthrown in China by the Mings.
1369 The Bastille is built in Paris.
1370 Steel crossbows developed, more powerful than older wooden ones.
1371 Robert II becomes king of Scots, first Stewart king.
1372 French defeat English several times. Welch rebel takes Gurnsey.
1373 John of Gaunt (younger son of Edward III) leads English army into France via Calais.
1374 Petrarch dies.
1375 Treaty of Bruges between England and France.
1376 Edward, the Black Prince, dies.
1377 Edward III dies, his grandson Richard II becomes king(deposed, 1399).
1378 French renew fighting with English. "Great Schism" begins in the Church.
1379 New College, Oxford, founded.
1380 Charles V of France dies, Charles VI ("the deranged") becomes king. This is actually the end of the Valois line (and, in effect, the even more ancient Capetian line), as Charles VII was fathered by a boyfriend of Charles VI's wife (she wouldn't say which boyfriend, but Charles VII was a big improvement on the last few Valois kings).
1381 Wat Tyler led peasants' rebellion in England.
1382 Wyclif expelled from Oxford for preaching heresy.
French defeat Flanders in Battle of Roosebeke
1383 Turks conquer what is now Bulgaria.
1384 War between England and Scotland.
1385 Fighting renewed in France.
1386 Swiss defeat yet another Austrian army at Sempach.
1387 Chaucer begins the "Canterbury Tales" (finishes it in 1400, dies soon thereafter.)
1388 Scots defeat English at Chevy Chase.
1389 Truce between England, Scotland and France.
1390 Robert III becomes king of Scotland.
1391 Wyclif's heretical writings cause formation of first Protestant groups in Bohemia.
1392 Charles VI of France goes completely mad.
Burgundy Armagnac conflict begins.
1393 King of Bohemia cracks down on religious "irregularity."
1394 Richard II invades Ireland.
1395 Richard II "allegedly "subdues Ireland.
1396 Richard II marries Isabella of France at Calais.
1397 Sweden, Denmark, and Norway unite.
1398 Timur the Lame conquers northern India.
1399 Richard II deposed, Henry IV (grandson of Edward III through John of Gaunt) becomes king by seizing the English throne
1400 Henry IV defeats rebellion by English nobles.
1401 Timur the Lame conquers Baghdad and Syria.
1402 Timur defeats Turks in Anatolia.
1403 Henry IV suppresses rebellion in northern England.
1404 Art and literature flourish in Ming dynasty China.
1405 Timur the Lame dies (just in time, he was getting awfully close...)
1406 Robert II of Scotland dies, succeeded by James I who is promptly taken prisoner by the English.
1407 Louis, Duke of Orleans, murdered by Burgundians, civil war rages in France.
1408 Cardinals of Rome and Avignon meet to end the "Great Schism" (anti-popes.) Negotiations drag on for years.
1409 Leipzig University founded.
1410 Heretic (or First Protestant, if you will) Jan Hus and his followers (the "Hussites")are excommunicated in Prague.
1411 Sigismund, King of Hungary, elected Holy Roman Emperor.
1412 Joan of Arc born.
1413 Henry IV dies, Henry V becomes king of England (until 1422.)
1414 The Medici of Florence become bankers to the Papacy.
1415 Jan Hus burned at the stake for Heresy.
Battle of Agincourt.
1416 Dutch fishermen begin to use drift nets, making fishing much more efficient and profitable. Beginning of Dutch rise to commercial prominence in the region.
1417 Pope Martin V elected, end of the Great Schism (anti-popes).
1418 Henry V rampages through France, many French cities fall.
1419 Henry V allies with Burgundians against the French king.
1420 Treaty of Troyes, Charles VI ("the deranged") recognizes Henry V as his heir and gives him his daughter as Henry V's wife.
1421 Hussite wars rage in Bohemia, Hussites are winning.
1422 Henry V dies, succeeded by his nine month old son, Henry VI.
Charles VI dies, many French nobles recognize son of Charles VI as real French king (Charles VII.)
1423 English release King James I of Scotland.
1424 Bohemia in flames, as Hussites fight Imperial troops, and each other.
1425 John VIII becomes Byzantine emperor, last chance to save Byzantium.
1426 Holland becomes center of European music.
1427 Itzcoatl, king of the Aztecs, begins conquest of neighbors and establishment of an empire.
1428 Joan of Arc begins to lead French troops against the English.
1429 Joan of Arc raises English siege of Orleans.
Charles VII crowned king of France in Rheims.
Child king Henry VI crowned at Westminster.
1430 Joan of Arc captured by Burgundians.
Modern English becomes a noticeable evolution of Middle English as common form of spoken English.
1431 Joan of Arc burned at the stake for heresy.
Henry VI crowned king of France in Paris (he's nine years old and, boy, has he got problems.)